History of Turkey

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History of Turkey

Turkey’s history spans more than 4,000 years. The Turks first lived in Central Asia around 2000 BC. Later, some of them left Central Asia and spread throughout the country, settling many states and empires in large parts of Asia and Europe. These empires included the Great Hun Empire (founded in the third century BC), the Gotkork Empire (552-740), the Uyghur Empire (741-840), the Avar Empire (6-9th century AD),

History of Turkey

Millennial Empire (5-10 AD), Great Seljuk Empire (1040-1157) and many other empires.

The Turks settled in Anatolia in the early 11th century with constant migration and invasion. Victory in 1071 against the Byzantines literally opened the gates of Anatolia to the Turks. It is after this date that the Turks completely conquered all of Anatolia and established the Seljuk government of Anatolia there (1080-1308). Turkey was first formed in Anatolia and was sometimes called Konya (modern-day Konya) years later.

Ottoman period in the history of Turkey 1299-1923

With the Mongol invasion of Anatolia, where the Seljuk state was rapidly defeated in 1243, a Turkish ruler named Uthman began in 1299 in the Söğüt area of Skischer in the northwestern corner of the empire. The Ottoman Empire expanded rapidly during the fourteenth century, creating the Ottoman Empire, which ruled over a vast territory on three continents and lasted until the end of the first year of World War I. The Ottomans conquered Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) in 1453 A.D. During the reign of Sultan II (1451-1481), the Byzantine Empire fell, marking the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of a new era.

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During the reign of Sultan Mufti II, who assumed the title of “conqueror”, the Ottoman government entered an era of rapid development that lasted until the end of the sixteenth century. At its peak, the Ottomans ruled over what is now Greece, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Albania and Romania, and all the islands of the eastern Mediterranean and what is now the Middle East. The empire’s borders stretched from the Crimea in the north to Yemen and Sudan in the south, and from Iran and the Caspian Sea in the east to Vienna in the northwest and Spain in the southwest. However, from the 16th century onwards, the Ottoman Empire lost its economic and military superiority over Europe, which had developed rapidly during the Renaissance, with the conquest of new lands and access to raw materials, and with the Industrial Revolution. The Ottoman Empire could not adapt to these new developments; Thus, the balance of power shifted in favor of European countries. Nationalist movements in Turkey began in the nineteenth century, and the autonomy movements and revolts of the Balkan nations, with the support of European and Russian powers, gradually disintegrated the Ottoman Empire.

History of Turkey and the First World War

History of Turkey and the First World War 1914-1918

The weak Ottoman Empire in Turkey lasted until World War I, and in 1914 it entered World War I and sided with the Allied Powers. Under the conditions of this war, the lands of the Ottoman Empire were occupied by Britain, France, Russia and Greece, and this was the real end of the Ottoman Empire.

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A national resistance and liberation movement emerged in response to the occupation led by Mustafa Kemal, an Ottoman military commander who mobilized Anatolia in search of Turkish autonomy and national independence. She united her scattered resistance groups in Anatolia and organized them into a structured army. Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal, who later took the surname Ataturk or “Father of the Turks”, the resistance was consolidated and the Turks were able to continue the war for a national battle.

National War of Liberation and History of Turkey

Turkey was an attempt to build a new country from the ruins of an empire, which had ended its life; In which a small army of volunteers fought and fought against the leading powers of the time and won, which lasted four years (1919-1922). Ataturk’s victory was not only military but also diplomatic. Turkey’s military victory was sealed with diplomatic success with the signing of the Lausanne Peace Treaty on July 24, 1923. With the signatures of Britain, France, Greece, Italy and other countries, the treaty was recognized, which created the international borders of Turkey and guaranteed its full independence.

تاریخچه ترکیه و جنگ ملی آزادسازی ترکیه

History of the Republic of Turkey

Turkey’s independence was declared a republic on October 29, 1923; For the first time in centuries, the Turkish people were authoritarian. Mustafa Kemal was elected the first President of the Republic of Turkey and was appointed President for 15 years until her death in 1938. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk introduced a wide range of reforms in the political, social, legal, economic and cultural spheres that were almost unparalleled in other countries.

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The first Grand National Assembly, led by Ataturk, established a new political and legal system based on the principles of parliamentary democracy, human rights, national sovereignty and separation of powers, private property and secularism, and the separation of religion and state affairs. A new system of secular education was established, the Arabic alphabet was changed to the Latin alphabet, and new civil and criminal codes were adapted from European models. Turkish women have been given equal rights under the law, such as the right to vote and to be elected to equal positions, which makes Turkey better than many Western countries in terms of women’s rights. It was a revolution that was unparalleled in its time and even today, placing a dominant Muslim nation in line with Western civilization and world values.

Experts and immigration lawyers of Holding (4K Group) are proud to provide the best consulting services to our dear compatriots, relying on their legal and immigration knowledge as well as their valuable experiences of many years.

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