Turkish political structure

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Turkish political structure
  • What kind of government does Turkey have?
    Executive power is exercised by the Council of Ministers; the legislative power of the Turkish National Assembly and the Turkish judiciary is independent of the executive and legislative branches.
  • Who is the head of the Turkish government?
    The President of Turkey (Tϋrkiye Cumhuriyeti CumhurBaşkani) is the head of the Turkish government and at the head of the Turkish political structure.
  • Does Turkey have a united government or does it follow federal sovereignty?
    Turkey has a single system and the provinces from the center
Turkish political structure

They take orders.

Turkey is a developed country with extensive relations with Iran, and every year many compatriots immigrate to this country for various purposes. Awareness of the political situation in this country can be useful for applicants for immigration to Turkey.

The Republic of Turkey is an intercontinental country located on the Anatolian Peninsula in West Asia and its capital is Ankara. The variety of tourist attractions in Turkey has made it known as the country of the moon and stars among tourists; For this reason, every year, Turkey is considered as the number one destination for Iranians. The Turkish people are a warm-hearted and kind people and their culture is similar to Iranian culture, and this is the case It will make life in Turkey easier for immigrants. The country has made significant progress in recent decades in various fields, including educational institutions, tourism and economic affairs.

Examining the political structure of Turkey

In terms of political organization, the Republic of Turkey has three independent institutions and powers, the legislature, the executive and the judiciary. These three powers function independently of each other but at the same time act in unison; This political structure is headed by the President of Turkey. The President of Turkey is elected by the people every 5 years and has the power to elect the Prime Minister (Başbakan) and members of the judiciary. The Prime Minister himself is also responsible for forming the cabinet of the Turkish government; It goes without saying that the members of the Turkish National Assembly are elected by the people as the legislature or legislator of Turkey every 4 years.

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The following table shows the main political structure of Turkey:

Types of Turkish political structure, duties and responsibilities
The legislature or legislature exercises legislative responsibility in the Turkish Supreme National Assembly
The executive branch has a dual structure, including the president and the cabinet (cabinet).
Judiciary The judiciary is governed by independent courts and supreme judicial bodies

Turkish political structure and executive branch

The executive arm of the Republic of Turkey is its executive branch. The executive branch in Turkey has limited power and party membership is revoked during elections. Under Turkish law, the Turkish president is responsible for electing the country’s prime minister; The Prime Minister has the power to order the convening of cabinet meetings, the promulgation of laws, and the conclusion of international treaties and agreements. The Turkish legal procedure is that the prime minister is responsible for nominating the cabinet ministers by the president, but the process of electing the president of Turkey is through a two-round election system.

Turkish political structure and the legislature

The institution of the legislature in the Republic of Turkey is a very important and influential institution in the destiny of the whole country. The main source of decisions for this important political structure is the Turkish Grand National Assembly (Tϋrkiye Bϋyϋk Millet Meclisi). It has key tasks and responsibilities, including drafting the law, overseeing the performance of cabinet ministers, and drafting and approving the entire Turkish budget. According to the Turkish Constitution, members of the Turkish National Assembly are elected through a system of proportional representation of party lists. It should be noted that elections are held every 4 years to elect members of the Turkish Parliament.

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Turkish political structure and judiciary

The third structure is related to the Turkish judiciary; This institution also has its own duties and responsibilities and has its own conditions. The Turkish judiciary usually oversees the conformity of laws with the Turkish constitution, and any violation of the constitution is monitored by this Turkish national institution. Even the actions and behavior of the Turkish government are monitored by this national institution. Members of the Turkish judiciary are usually appointed by the President of the country, and usually with the approval of the President, members can serve in Turkey until retirement age. The mandatory retirement age for members of the Turkish judiciary is around 65, after which members are not allowed to sit in the Turkish judiciary.

Turkish political structure and Turkish parties

Conditions of the Turkish political structure

As our dear compatriots know, Turkish politics is formed in the form of a republican structure, thus the head of state and the head of state are at the head of the Turkish executive branch. The president also issues executive orders, appointing judges and heads of government agencies. Turkey’s political system is based on the separation of powers. The executive power of the country is exercised by the Council of Ministers, the legal or legislative power belongs to the Supreme National Assembly, in the meantime the Turkish justice system operates independently of these two powers. It should be noted that the current Turkish Constitution was adopted after the referendum on the Turkish Constitution on November 7, 1982. The following table summarizes the conditions of Turkey’s political structure in 2020:

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Type of government of Turkey Parliamentary Democracy Republic
The name of the government Republic of Turkey
Year of formation 1982
Head of State Recep Tayyip Erdogan
Prime Minister Binali Yıldırım
The ruling party Justice and Development Party or Ak Party

Turkish political structure and Turkish parties

Turkey is a republican democracy with a multi-party or multi-party system. Various parties are defined as political parties that win more than 10% of the vote in the last general election or rely on the seat of this civic body in parliament. Small and medium-sized parties in Turkey are defined as political parties that qualify for the Turkish High Electoral Commission (Yϋksek Seçim Kurulu, alias YSK), and their names are listed on voting lists. However, the political parties shown in the table below are the major parties participating in the seats of the Turkish National Assembly:

RankName of the partyParty leaderIdeologyestablished year
1Justice and Development Party or Ak PartyRecep Tayyip ErdoğanSocial conservatism, neo-Ottomanism2001
2Republican People’s PartyKemal KılıçdaroğluSocial democracy, perfectionism1992
3People’s Democratic PartySezai Temelli & Pervin BuldanDemocratic socialism, radical democracy2012
4Nationalist Movement PartyDevlet BahçeliPan-Turkism and nationalism1969
5Good party or partyMeral AkşenerLiberal conservatism, pro-Europeanism2017
6Happiness PartyKemal KerimoğluSunni Islamism, conservatism2001
7Great Alliance PartyMustafa DesticiSunni Islamism, conservatism1993
8Democratic PartyGültekin UysalLiberal conservatism2007

Experts and immigration lawyers of Holding (4K Group) are proud to provide the best consulting services to our dear compatriots, relying on their legal and immigration knowledge as well as their valuable experiences of many years.

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