حمل و نقل در استانبول
Transportation in Istanbul
0
(0)

Istanbul and geographical location

Formerly known as Constantinople, Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey and the fifth largest city in the world. It is the only city in the world located on the two continents of Asia and Europe. The Bosphorus Strait, which is the narrowest strait in the world, is about 2 km wide and 2 m long and is located in northwestern Turkey. This strait divides Istanbul into two parts, the western part of which is in Europe and the eastern part of which is in Asia. The area of Istanbul is about 2 square kilometers and the area of Istanbul province is 4 square kilometers.

Due to the fact that the city of Istanbul is located near the North Anatolian Fault, there have been severe earthquakes in the city so far.

The old part of Istanbul is built on seven hills, all of which are within the defensive walls of the city. The highest of them is Kamelia hill, which is called Jamlika Tepsi in Turkish and its height is 3 meters above the sea level.

The districts of Istanbul are divided into three main districts. The historic Istanbul Peninsula, which includes the Aminonu and Fateh districts, is located in the southern part of the Golden Horn, the Beyoglu and Beşiktaşhistorical districts, located in the northern part of the Golden Horn, and the Oskudar and Kadıköy districts, which are in the Asian part.

population

The Statistics Center of Turkey published the “Results of the Population Census by Residence”: 18.66% of the Turkish population lives in Istanbul. The population of this city increased by 451,543 last year.

According to the census, 15 million 519 thousand out of 83 million 154 thousand 997 Turkish citizens live in Istanbul. To explain that : Foreign nationals with visas or residencepermits for less than 3 months, as well as Syrians who are “covered by a temporary detention program”, are not included in this statistic.

Istanbul Weather

Istanbul has a Mediterranean border climate, subtropical and humid climate and oceanic climate according to the Köppen climate classification system. This is due to the geographical location and size of the city. Istanbul’s summers are hot and humid and its winters are cold, rainy and snowy. The average annual rainfall in this city is 870 mm and in winter it has a temperature below zero degrees for about 30 days. Snow also stays on the ground for several days after each rain due to the cold weather. The humidity is often high in Istanbul, with an average of 228 mornings since May morning, with winter days being the most polluted. Istanbul is somewhat windy and the average wind speed is about 17 km.

Intercity and urban transportation

Air transport

Istanbul has two international airports, Ataturk and Sabiha Gokcen. Ataturk, which is larger and more central than any other airport, is located 24 km west of the city center. The airport, which handled about 51.2 million passengers in 2013, became the fifth busiest airport in Europe and the 18th busiest in the world. Sabiha Gokcen International Airport, located 45 km southeast of central Istanbul, was commissioned in 2001 to reduce traffic congestion at Ataturk Airport. Due to the airport’s low-cost transportation policy, and especially after the opening of a new international terminal in 2009, Istanbul’s second airport quickly became popular. The airport handled about 14.7 million passengers in 2012, and a year later was named the world’s fastest growing airport by the International Airports Council.

At the end of 2018, the new Istanbul International Airport was opened, which has become the largest airport in the world in all four stages of the project, with a capacity of 150 million passengers per year.

Maritime Transportation

Surrounded on all sides by waters such as the Black Sea, the Sea of Marmara and the Bosphorus Strait, maritime transport is very important in this city. The port of Istanbul is the most important port in Turkey. The port is located in the Kadikoy district of Beyoglu district and consists of two adjacent piers, Galata and Sali Pazari, which run from the Galata Bridge in Golden Horn to Sali Pazari on the west coast of the Bosphorus. The port consists of three halls for travelers, which can move about 10,000 tourists per hour.

Tramway

The tram first started operating in Istanbul on September 3, 1931, and served the people until 1912. This tram was not electric and was driven by a horse. After that, the electric tram or electric train was the main means of public transportation for the people of Istanbul until 1966. Then, in 1990, the traditional tram was launched on a trial basis in the European part of Istanbul, but due to its declining popularity, the modern tram system was opened in 1992 in the European part. Today, the Asian part of Istanbul uses a traditional tram system, while the European part uses both traditional and modern trams.

Cable train

Istanbul has two underground railway lines, the older of which is the tunnel line. The line opened on January 4, 2006 and is the second largest urban subway train in the world and the first urban subway in Europe, after the London Underground, which opened in 1995. Istanbul’s second cable train is Kabataş Taksim, which started operating on July 29, 2006. The line, which is about 600 meters long, connects the sea bus and tram station in Kabataş to the metro station in Taksim Square.

Metro

Construction of the Istanbul Underground began in 1992. The first line of this system, called M2 (M2), was opened on September 16, 2000 between Taksim and Levent. The line is 8.5 km long and has 6 stations, all of which are similar but have different colors. In 2009, following an expansion to the north, the Levent line to Ataturk Oto Sana. Station in Maslek was opened. The line also extended southward from Taksim to Sheikhaneh in Beyoglu, near the northern entrance to the tunnel.

The last development in the northern direction for a short route to Haji Osman was opened in 2011. The southern development of the MT line from Sheikhaneh to Yeni Kapi over the new Golden Horn Bridge also began in 2013, and then in 2014 it was connected to the M1A and M1B airport lines.

In the Asian part, the 26.5 km M4 line was opened on August 17, 2012 to Kartal. This line will have a total of 19 stations after the reopening of its second part. The connection of this line with Sabiha Gokcen Airport is also under investigation

Metrobus

Construction of the Istanbul Underground began in 1992. The first line of this system, called M2 (M2), was opened on September 16, 2000 between Taksim and Levent. The line is 8.5 km long and has 6 stations, all of which are similar but have different colors. In 2009, following an expansion to the north, the Levent line to Ataturk Oto Sana. Station in Maslek was opened. The line also extended southward from Taksim to Sheikhaneh in Beyoglu, near the northern entrance to the tunnel.

The last development in the northern direction for a short route to Haji Osman was opened in 2011. The southern development of the MT line from Sheikhaneh to Yeni Kapi over the new Golden Horn Bridge also began in 2013, and then in 2014 it was connected to the M1A and M1B airport lines.

In the Asian part, the 26.5 km M4 line was opened on August 17, 2012 to Kartal. This line will have a total of 19 stations after the reopening of its second part. The connection of this line with Sabiha Gokcen Airport is also under investigation

Seabus

In Istanbul, you can use passenger boats and sea buses to travel between the Asian and European parts and the Prince Islands.

In addition to the attractiveness of using passenger boats, you can travel in less time than other vehicles.

این پست چقدر مفید بود؟

Click on a star to rate it!

امتیاز متوسط 0 / 5. شمارش آرا: 0

تاکنون رای نیامده است!

همانطور که این پست را مفید یافتید ...

ما را در شبکه های اجتماعی دنبال کنید!

Free consultation request
پر بازدیدترین مقالات
پر بازدیدترین ویدئوها
آخرین خبرها

Compare listings

Compare

اشتراک این صفحه

ما را در شبکه های اجتماعی دنبال کنید
https://4kgroup.com.tr/?p=50060

جستجو در سایت